Propp’s thirty one functions

Initial Situation Members of family introduced, Hero introduced

1, Absentation One of the members of the family absents itself

2, Interdiction Interdiction addressed to hero. (Can be reversed.)

3, Violation Interdiction is violated.

4, Reconnaissance The villain makes attempt to get information

5, Delivery The villain gets information about the victem

6, Trickery The villain tries to deceive his victim

7, Complicity Victim is deceived

8, Villainy Villain causes harm to a member of a family

8a, Lack Members of family lacks something, desires something.

9, Mediation Misfortune made known. Hero dispatched.

10. Counteraction Hero (Seeker) agrees to counteraction.

11. Departure Hero leaves home.

12, 1st Donor Function Hero tested, receives magical agent or helper

13, Hero’s Reaction Hero reacts to agent or donor

14 Receipt of agent Hero acquires use of magical agent.

15. Spatial change Hero led to object of search

16. Struggle Hero and villain join in direct combat.

17. Branding Hero is branded.

18. Victory Villain is defeated.

19, Liquidation Initial misfortune or lack is liquidated.

20, Return Hero returns.

21, Pursuit, Chase Hero is pursued

22, Rescue Hero rescued from pursued.

23. Unrecognized arrival Hero, unrecognized, arrives home or elsewhere.

24, Unfounded claims, False hero presents unfounded claims

25 Difficult task Difficult task is proposed to hero

26 Solution The task is resolved

27 Recognition The hero is recognized

28 Exposure The false hero and villain is exposed

29 Transfiguration The hero is given a new appearance.

30 Punishment The villain is punished.

31 Wedding The hero is married, ascends the throne.