Theories about theories

Still Mitchel Resnick: “….move away from the notion of a single, absolute, unifying conception of knowledge, arguing instead that knowledge is constantly constructed and reconstructed in a more decentralized way.”

Example: Literary Criticism

“Traditional theory of literature assumed that meaning was created by an author and conveyed through the author’s writings. According to this view, reading is a search for inherent meaning in a document, an attempt to decipher the intention of the author. But modern school of literary criticism — such as poststructuralism, reader-response theory, and deconstructionism – adopt a very different stance. These movements all focus on readers (not authors) as the main constructors of meaning. In this new view, text have little or no inherent meaning. Rather, meaning are constantly reconstructed by communities of readers through their interactions with the text. Meaning itself has become decentralized.”

Another example: feminist studies

“Since different voices are often valued differently in our society, the idea of multiple voices takes on a political edge. Formal, logical, abstract, and analytical ways of thinking, typically associated with men, have been privileged in our society — viewed as superior, more advanced, more likely to lead to “truth.” On the other hand, relational and contextual ways of thinking, typically associated with women, have been undervalued and discouraged. ”

” the “dominant epistemology” that grants privileged status to abstract, formal, and logical ways of thinking” are now being challenged. The idea of “alternative epistemology” is that there are multiple ways of thinking and knowing. “People are recognizing that knowledge speaks not with a single voice but with many.”